Theoretical background: see chapters 3 and 4 in Machiels (2010). Sample preparation method modified from Machiels et al. (2008).
The mineralogy and glass content of slags depend largely on the mode of cooling of the slags, e.g. slow cooling in a slag pot can result in a large amount of crystalline phases, and fast granulation in water can result in high glass content. A mineralogical analysis will thus only represent the mineralogy of a slag system for a certain grade of cooling and strongly different results can be obtained when cooling conditions are different between the different batches.
Even in a single slag pot, mineralogy and glass content can vary strongly. Taking a sample representative for a slag pot can be done by performing the sampling after a first size reduction of the bulk material or, by mixing representative parts of the slag pot (sides of the pot, center, near cracks, in center of slags, etc.)
Construction industry, the only industry still does things manually.
Even in the 21st century, to build a house right now is still a slow, labour-intensive, dangerous process, and almost always over-budget. Unlike the motoring or technology industries which use automated production methods to complete routine construction tasks, housing construction is one of the only industry that still does things manually till now, as said by Professor Khoshnevis from USC.
Among the conferences taking place every year on cement science, International Congress of Cement Chemistry (ICCC) is almost the most important one. The conference takes place every four years. The latest one is the 13th ICCC hosted in Madrid Spain in 2011 and the next one 14th ICCC will be hosted in Beijing in 2015. During the 13th ICCC, there were more than 900 participants from over 60 countries all over the world, received more than 400 papers on cement science, which cover 9 subjects:
As a cement researcher, I know cement much better than average people, while it is not the case with everything with a name using the word “cement”.
When I type “cement” in the powerful Google search box, Google automatically gives an alternative search phrase “cement mixer shot”, which means “cement mixer shot” is a very popular searchable phrase on the Internet.
In the cement science field, XRD analysis combined with Rietveld method can give quantitative results of crystalline phase of hydration products, so I try to use XRD/Rietveld method to quantify the hydration products of cementitous material. To achieve good performance of XRD test, fine powder is required and of great importance.
The question is how fine the particle sizes should be? It is showed by research that the particle size of powder has to be reduced to 10 μm or less, which is especially important for quantitative analysis (Smith, 2001).